Emerald jewels

Rishi sharma
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Emerald is a gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.[2] Beryl has a hardness of 7.5–8 on the Mohs scale.[2] Most emeralds are highly included,[3] so their toughness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. Emerald is a cyclosilicate.

The word "emerald" is derived (via Old French: esmeraude and Middle English: emeraude), from Vulgar Latin: esmaralda/esmaraldus, a variant of Latin smaragdus, which was borrowed via Ancient Greek: σμάραγδος (smaragdos; "green gem") from a Semitic language.[4]

 

Emeralds in antiquity were mined in Egypt at locations on Mount Smaragdus since 1500 BCE, and India, and Austria since at least the 14th century CE.[14] The Egyptian mines were exploited on an industrial scale by the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and later by Islamic conquerors. Mining ceased with the discovery of the Colombian deposits; only ruins remain.[15]

 

Colombia is by far the world's largest producer of emeralds, constituting 50–95% of the world production, with the number depending on the year, source and grade.[16][17][18][19] Emerald production in Colombia has increased drastically in the last decade, increasing by 78% from 2000 to 2010.[20] The three main emerald mining areas in Colombia are Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor.[21] Rare "trapiche" emeralds are found in Colombia, distinguished by ray-like spokes of dark impurities.

 

Zambia is the world's second biggest producer, with its Kafubu River area deposits (Kagem Mines) about 45 km (28 mi) southwest of Kitwe responsible for 20% of the world's production of gem-quality stones in 2004.[22] In the first half of 2011, the Kagem Mines produced 3.74 tons of emeralds.

 

Emeralds are found all over the world in countries such as Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil,[23] Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, the United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.[1] In the US, emeralds have been found in Connecticut, Montana, Nevada, North Carolina, and South Carolina.[1] In Canada, in 1997 emeralds were discovered in the Yukon.[24

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